Changing interests and identities in European border regions: EU policies, ethnic minorities, sociopolitical transformation in member states and accession countries.
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Moreover, borders are an imposer not only of an identity, but a supporter of difference too. They can be used as a manner of identification for those persons sharing the same cultural references, and as a means of differentiation against the different other. Hence, borders can be used by similar people to their own advantage in order to define themselves and set up their identity in front of the other s. Group affiliations are symbolic borders which prescribe attributes to individuals as members of a particular group.
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The process of social categorization may thus generate discrimination when resemblance is established as difference. Accordingly, the next section discusses social categorization, with an emphasis on social identity theory. This analysis continues with a presentation scădere în greutate a bismarck sănătății sanford the other elements announced in the title of this study, such as stereotypes and prejudices, which contribute to creating boundaries.
The answer to these elements may be discrimination. This is the case of racial and ethnic categories, which, once established, take part in creating disparity.
This process is the response to unequal allocation of resources and opportunities among individuals, according to their association with a majority or minority group. Mucho más que documentos.
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Social categorization as a symbolic boundary Categorization is fundamental for the comprehension of the physical and social environment. His theory states that group affiliations are represented on a psychological level as social identities prescribing attributes to the members of a particular group.
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We talk about group affiliation when individuals define themselves and are defined by others as members of a formed social category for instance, football players of a sport club, painting lovers, chess players, AIDS patients, young people, etc. Formulated on the basis of similarity of its members, group affiliation allows them to identify themselves socially. It is considered that group affiliation is reflected in shared values, representations, emotions and attachment to a group, functioning as a link among group members.
Wilson and Frank C. Keil dir. Bilig, R. Bundy R. According to Tajfel, social categorization is achieved through a mechanism of resemblance by assimilation and differentiation by contrast.
In accordance with the interactive perspective, there are practices and interactions between individuals which contribute to creating boundaries.
Moreover, social identity gives individuals a collective representation of what they are and how they should act in society. One can mutually consider that the affiliation with a social group induces the rejection of the other who does not belong to the group in question because he does not identify himself with it.
According to Tajfel, social categorization leads to more striking similarities within, and differences between, groups. Turner considers that the elements grouped according to similarity or difference in relation to a specific prototype is conducive of a stereotyped image of all the members of a group.
Since scădere în greutate sanford sănătate bismarck pierdere în greutate bismarck sănătății sanford resemble each other, the members of a group can mutually replace each other.
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Therefore, the social categorization process has positive or negative effects in the social sphere. Such processes underlie cooperation or compliance behaviours in relation to certain norms concerning discrimination, exclusion or closure of the social space.
Hogg, P. Oakes, S. Reicher, S. Whetherell dir.
Such positive or negative characteristics — which are emblematic for social representations3 - become features of a specific social group. According to Allport,6 stereotypes — taken as exaggerated beliefs that shape thoughts, feelings, actions — are consequences of the process of categorization.
This ideology was formulated in the 19th century.
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Moreover, the evaluation of the other according to their own cultural references has generated a hierarchy of groups. The Nazi sanford sănătate bismarck pierdere în greutate principles are guided by the belief that the superiority of a race over sanford sănătate bismarck pierdere în greutate justifies an unequal treatment of the members of the inferior race.
This is one of the many examples of racism that led to an extreme point. Such Manichean thinking, which underlies the domination of a group over another according to its superiority, thus has a negative impact upon the group considered to be inferior.